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MLA 9th Edition

Works Cited - Audiovisual and Media

Click on the plus sign (+) or name of the source type to see examples below. 

See also MLA Handbook: 9th Edition, pages 328-335. 



Title of Film. Directed by First Name Last Name and First Name Last Name, Publisher, Publication Date.


Room. Directed by Lenny Abrahamson, Element Pictures, 2015.


Format for a film streamed online:

Title of Film. Directed by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Publication Date. Title of App or Database.


Blue is the Warmest Color. Directed by Abdellatif Kechiche, sous Films / Wild Bunch, 2013. Netflix.

Format for a television episode streamed online or on an app:

"Title of Source." Title of Series, season number, episode number, Publisher, Publication Date. Title of App or Database.


"Into the Deep." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 9, ABC Family, 6 Aug. 2013. Netflix.


"Title of Source." Title of Website, uploaded by Author First Name Last Name or username, Publication Date, URL without http://


"Literary Devices in Pop Culture." YouTube, uploaded by cwalden43, 11 Jul. 2012,

Format for a song:

Performer Last Name, First Name. "Title of Song." Title of Album, , Publisher, Publication Date. Title of App or Website,  URL without http:// for websites


Shad and DJ T.lo. "Fire." Boarding Pass, 1 Dec. 2014. Bandcamp,

​Format for spoken word recording:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Recording." Title of Series, Other Contributor Role and First Name Last Name, Publication Date, URL without http://


Kinew, Wab. "Red Man Laughing - The Wab Kinew Interview." The Red Man Laughing Podcast, interviewed by Ryan McMahon, 30 Oct. 2015,

​Format for a podcast episode:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Episode." Title of Series, Other Contributor Role and First Name Last Name, Publisher, Publication Date, Title of App


Gordon, Aubrey and Michael Hobbes."Anti-Fat Bias." Maintenance Phase, 24 Nov. 2020, Podcast Addict.


Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Image." Publication Date, Title of Website, URL without http://


Littlechild, George. "Rainbow Man, Warrior." 2011, George Little Child,


Example for an untitled image given generic description:

Savage, Jim. "Margaret Atwood at 14 on a dock". 15 Sep. 2013, Flare,


Format for a physical work of art:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Art. Publication Date, Location. (Institution, City. Unless the city is in the name of the institution.)


Indiana, Robert. LOVE. 1970, Indianapolis Museum of Art.

Format for a lecture / talk / speech:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Presentation." Title of Event or Course, other contributor role and First Name Last Name, Publication Date, Location or URL without http://


Aslan, Reza. "Fear Inc: Confronting Islamophobia in North America." Forward Thinking Speaker Series, presented by EPL, 18 Mar. 2016, Chateau Lacombe Hotel, Edmonton.

NorQuest Library has noted that the formal MLA style does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers so we have developed this citation style in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation. 

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.