The works cited list is a separate page at the end of your work that contains a complete list of sources you have used in your paper/essay with each entry containing the relevant core elements. See below for a detailed explanation of each element, or click on the links to go to examples for a variety of source types.
Works cited entries are double-spaced, each entry is formatted with a hanging indent, and the complete list is alphabetized by the first word of each entry. For more information on formatting, go to the Document Formatting page.
See also MLA Handbook 9th edition (p. 105-226).
The Author element lists the primary creator of the work you are citing. The general format for the Author element:
Last Name, First Name, Middle Initial.
*The general format for a source with two authors: Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.
Scully, Dana, and Fox Mulder.
*The general format for a source with three or more authors: Last Name, First Name Initial., et al.
Scully, Dana, et. al
The Author element can be:
The Title of Source element lists the title of the work you are citing. The general format for the Title of source element:
Title: Subtitle. or "Title: Subtitle."
"Spring, Mountain, Sea." contained in The Secrets of a Fire King.
The Title of source element can be:
|poem||play||television series||television episode||website|
A container is a work that contains another work (for example, a journal is the container of an article). The general format for the Title of container element:
The Secrets of a Fire King, containing "Spring, Mountain, Sea."
Academic Search Complete, containing AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, containing "It's in Our Blood."
The Title of container element can be:
|periodical||play||television series||website||comic book series|
|digital database||streaming media provider||online network||digital platform|
A contributor are people, groups, or organizations that contribute to a work without being the primary author. The general format for the Other contributors element:
contributed by First Name Last Name,
edited by John W. Chalmers, et al.,
Created by I. Marlene King,
The Other contributors element can be:
The general format for the Version element:
xxth Canadian ed., (ed.=edition)
If the source includes a note indicating that it is a version or edition of the work, include it in your entry. The Version element can be:
If the source you are citing is part of a sequence, such as a numbered volume or issue, then we will also include this number. The general format for the Number element:
vol. xx, no. xx, (vol.=volume; no.=number)
vol. 11, no. 2,
season 4, episode 9,
The Number element can be:
|volume||issue number||season||episode||division number|
The publisher is responsible for making the source available. The general format for the Publisher element:
Producer of Source, (city of publication is omitted unless it is pre-1900)
Oxford UP, (UP=University Press)
Quat'sous Films / Wild Bunch,
The Publisher element can be:
|blog network||division of company|
The publication date lets the reader know when the version of the source you are citing was published. The general format for the Publication date element:
xx Mon. YEAR, xx:xx a.m./p.m.,
19 May 2016, 1:55 p.m.,
The Publication date element can be:
The location of a source depends on its format. The general format for the Location element:
pp. xxx-xxx. or www.xxxx. or doi:xx.xxxx. or place.
youtu.be/upsZZ2s3xv8. (URL/web address without http://)
Chateau Lacombe Hotel, Edmonton. (live presentation or a physical object seen in person)
The Location element can be:
|page number||range of page numbers||URL||DOI||disc number|
|place and city||city||archive number||venue and city|
See the tabs below for instructions for how to incorporate the names of one or more authors in your works cited entries.
When your source has only one author, you will write their name with last name first, then first name, followed by any initials.
When your source has two authors, include them in the order in which they are presented in the source. The first author will be written as last name, first name, but reverse this order for the second author, and put the word and in between the names. Add a label to identify the role, if it is different than author (such as editor)
When your source has three or more authors, write the name of the first author, followed by et al. (which means "and others"). The first author will be written as last name, first name.