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MLA 9th Edition

Works Cited - Personal Communication

Click on the plus sign (+) or name of the source type to see examples below. 

See also MLA Handbook: 9th Edition, pages 336-337.


NorQuest Library has noted that the formal MLA style does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers so we have developed this citation style in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation. 

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

General format for interviews you conduct: 

   Last Name, First Name of Interviewee. Personal interview. Date of interview.


   Kola, Priyanka. Personal interview. 19 Sept. 2016.

General Format for an email: 

   Last Name, First Name of Author. "Title of message." Received by First Name Last Name, date email sent.


   Van Helsing, Tanya. "Re: Trip to the Carpathians." Received by Eric Harker, 29 Nov. 2018.