NorQuest College uses the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
The purpose of APA citation is to:
For step-by-step help on how to research, visit the Learn to Research guide.
To learn more about formatting in APA, complete these tutorials
This guide is not comprehensive. It is meant to address common questions that NorQuest students have.
Please visit and use the APA Style Website for more reference examples and detailed explanations, including:
This online course introduces essential skills and concepts to help you understand and apply the APA Citation Style.
To preview the parts of the course, please click on the linked images below. Note that the preview site will not grant a completion badge.
|Introduction||Reference Citations||In-text Citations||Formatting & Proofreading|
Abstracts (not all papers require an abstract, consult your instructor or assignment outline)
• Abstract Keyword Page Guide provided by APA
Focus on writing in a way that is
Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains a separate chapter on this topic.
The guidelines provided by APA help authors reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels and describing individuals at the appropriate level of specificity. Some examples include:
The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.
Instead of using adjectives as nouns to label groups of people, descriptive phrases are preferred.
Instead of broad categories, you should use exact age ranges that are more relevant and specific.
Streefkerk, R. (2019). APA Manual 7th edition: The most notable changes. https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/apa-seventh-edition-changes/
NorQuest Library has noted that the formal APA style does not have a format to acknowledge Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers as a reference. In the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation, NorQuest College Library continues to follow templates created by Lorisia MacLeod and NorQuest College Indigenous Student Centre staff that meet this need.
Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers are cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation should follow the same guidelines noted for a paraphrase or direct quote:
Name of Elder/Knowledge Keeper with year of communication.
Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2018).
The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2018).
Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.
Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.
Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.