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APA 7th edition




Author, A. (Year). Title of webpage in italics. Site Name. URL


Smith, M., & Robinson, L., & Segal, J. (2019). Depression symptoms and warning signs. HelpGuide.


Name of Group. (Date). Title of webpage in italics. Site Name. URL

  • If author/association have the same name as the website, omit the Site Name.
  • When using multiple pages from the same site, each page has a separate reference.

  • Examples:

    Webpage with publication date:

    Zero to Three. (2016, February 25). Learning to write & draw.

    Webpage with no publication date:

    Federal Accessibility Legislation Alliance. (n.d.). Accessible Canada Act in plain language.

    Site Name same as group author:

    Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Depression (major depressive disorder).

    Site Name different than group author:

    Open Education Global. (n.d.). Community of practice for open education. Community College Consortium for OER.

    • Retrieval information is included only if information may be updated or modified, such as census or population data.


    Name of association. (Date). Title of webpage in italics. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL


    Worldometer. (n.d.). Countries in the world by population. Retrieved January 26, 2020, from



    Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name of website in italics. URL


    Urban, T. (2013, July 8). 7 ways to be insufferable on Facebook. Wait But Why.

    • Omit site name if same as author (as in example below). 

    Geist, M. (2019, May 2). Does Canadian privacy law matter if it can't be enforced?‚Äč


    Online dictionaries, encyclopedia, etc.

    • Spelling should conform to the Dictionary
    • Cite what you see. If referencing an archived entry, and the full date of publication (2018, March 26) is not provided, use what information is available to you: (2018, March), (2018), or (n.d.) if there is no year of publication.
    • If you are using an entry that is continuously updated, use "n.d." as year of publication and include a retrieval date in (Month Date, Year) format.


    Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Source Information in italics. Retrieved Month Day, Year from URL


    Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Argue. In Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved December 8, 2016, from



    Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Source information in italics. Retrieved Month Day, Year from URL. 


    Cowie, D. (n.d.). A Tribe Called Red. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 5, 2020 from


    Other web resources



    Instructor, A. (Year). Title of resource in italics [Resource description in brackets]. Name of institution. URL login for Moodle.


    Sereda, S. (2020). The joys of research: How I learned to stop worrying and love the database [PowerPoint slides]. NorQuest College.


    Kaai, N. (2023, May 22). [Lecture notes on evidence-informed practice]. NorQuest College.

    External resources posted to Moodle (PDFs, PPTs, etc.) not created by Instructor.

    Format according to source type and include Moodle login URL at the end:

    Pagliuso, M. (2021). Chapter 3 - Information literacy for college students [PowerPoint slides]. Elite Academic Publishing.

    Nugent, S. (2019). Fascinating article. Random Magazine, 18-23.

    Fulton-Lyne, L. (n.d.). A beautiful poem.

    Cite what you see. If there is missing information, follow APA guidance: Missing Reference Information or ask your Instructor.



    Author, A. (Year). Title of dataset italics [Description in brackets]. Publisher. DOI or URL


    Bashir, R. N. (2023). Horticulture recommendation system [Dataset]. IEEE Dataport.

    City of Edmonton. (2021). Average monthly residential water consumption by neighbourhood 2016 - map view [Dataset]. City of Edmonton Open Data Portal.

    • Date for unpublished data is the year(s) of collection
    • Provide a retrieval date at the end of the reference if the data set is designated to change over time
    • If there are multiple versions, note by including (Version #) behind the title. e.g. Title (Version #) [Description].
    • Use the dates of the conference in Year, Month Dates format, e.g. (2020, May 4-6). 


    Presenter, A. (Year, Month Dates). Title of contribution in italics [Type of contribution in brackets]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL


    Scmidt, J. (2018, May). Innovate this! Bullshit in academic libraries and what we can do about it [Paper presentation]. The Canadian Association of Professional Academic Librarians Conference, Regina, Saskatchewan. 



    Surname, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of PowerPoint in italics [PowerPoint slides]. Site Name. URL


    Simmon, R. (2014, January 25). Four public speaking tips from standup comedians [PowerPoint slides]. Slideshare.



    Author, A.A. [username]. Date. Content of the post up to the first 20 words. [Description of audiovisuals]. Social media site name. URL

    Examples are available at APA Style.

    Artificial Intelligence



    Name of Group. (Year). Title of work in italics (Version #) [Descriptor]. URL


    OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 23 version) [Large language model].

    • Version: ChatGPT versions include the date. Other AI software may not include date, instead you may see something like (Version 3.8) instead.
    • Descriptor: OpenAI describes ChatGPT as a large language mode. Other AI developers may describe their software differently which should be reflected in brackets.

    These guidelines are based on how to cite software according to APA Citation Style. For an explanation of each element (Name of Group, Date, etc.), visit

    In-text citations:

    Format: (Name of Group, Year)

    Example: (OpenAI, 2023)


    Text generated by ChatGPT cannot be retrieved in the same ways as an article or website. This means the person reading your paper won't be able to trace back to the source you used to verify your quoted or paraphrased text. However, you are responsible for clearly stating where ideas, facts, and statements come from. It is recommend that you identify the source within your writing. For example:


    When prompted with the command, "Write a sentence about how cold Canadian winters are," ChatGPT generated the following text: "Canadian winters are notoriously cold and snowy, with temperatures often dropping well below freezing and snowfall lasting for several months" (OpenAI, 2023).


    If you prompted the software to create a lengthy piece of text to consult, best practice would be to include the entire output as an Appendix to the assignment. For example:

    Regarding long-term winter weather changes, ChatGPT noted, "winters are generally becoming milder and warmer in many parts of the world, including in many regions of Canada" (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).




    Figure # 

    AI Generated Image 

    image of a white square







    Note. Image generated by the prompt "Canadian Winter," by OpenAI, DALL-E, 2023.



    Name of Group. (Year). Title of work (Version #) [Descriptor]. URL 


    OpenAI. (2023). DALL-E (Version 2) [Large language model].  

    Graphic Design Tools


    Software licenses typically state that you can use content (templates and images) from their library without attribution (but it is appreciated).
    Your instructor may approach this differently and expect you to include attribution. Not sure? Ask them.
    If they do, follow the format example below:


    Designer, A. (year). Title of template in italics [Infographic template]. Software. URL


    Designer in your pocket. (n.d.). Beige minimialist 8 health benefits of practicing yoga [Infographic template]. Canva.

    This format can be used for Canva and similar online design software tools (Piktochart, etc.). Be sure to check the website for rules about attribution and any limitations on use.

    • If you are adding images not included in the software’s library, then you must cite and reference it in APA style. This will take up room on the infographic, so choose wisely.
    • Facts, ideas, or evidence in your infographic should be traceable. So if someone asks where information or images came from, you should be ready to answer. Your instructor may provide guidance on how they want you to include references & citations in your submission. Otherwise...
    • Create a separate document with a complete reference for any source used and to keep track of how to trace back to details (page or paragraph numbers). Use Word or consider the option of ' +Add page ' and using the new page to keep track of this information. Do not include it with your assignment submission unless your instructor requires it. Example