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APA 6th edition: Video, Audio & Images

Audio, Video and Images Material

Motion picture (videorecording in VHS or DVD format) 

Noyce, P., & Olsen, C. (Producers), & Noyce, P. (Director). (2002). Rabbit-proof fence [Motion picture]. Canada: Alliance Atlantic.


Motion picture (videorecording online format) 

Dubois, N., Phizicky, S., & Torge, J. (Producers), & McKenna, B. (Director). (2007). The Great War [Motion picture]. Retrieved from

Video weblog post (YouTube), author’s proper name available 

Pink, D. (2009, July). The puzzle of motivation [Video file]. Retrieved from


Video weblog post (YouTube), author’s screen name only available  

DEBSBS. (2008, February 12). The importance of hand washing [Video file]. Retrieved from

Music recording (cassette recording or CD format) 

Cavanaugh, J., Morgan, R., & Stock, L. (2009). You’re nobody till somebody loves you [Recorded by M. Bublé]. On Crazy love [CD]. Burbank, CA: Reprise.

Audio recording (cassette recording or CD format) 

Gulland, S. (Author), & Pitre, L. (Narrator). (2007). The many lives and secret sorrows of Josephine B. [CD]. Fredericton, NB: BTC Audiobooks.

Audio podcast 

CBC Radio (Producer). (2009, March 6). Canada Reads 2009 [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Images reprinted from a journal (includes charts, graphs, photographs, drawings or other depictions, NOT tables) 

Simpson, J. C. (Photographer). (2008). Steel cross-beam detail architecture of the Eiffel Tower, Paris, built 1887-1889 [Photograph]. In An architect’s perspective of Paris. Journal of Professional Travel, 49(8), 23. Retrieved from


Images reprinted from a book (includes charts, graphs, photographs, drawings or other depictions, NOT tables) 

Reid, J. (Photographer). (2009). Water flowing over top of the weir on the River Avon beneath the Pulteney covered bridge in Bath, UK, 2008.[Photograph]. In Travels with my Aunt. Timbuktu, ZZ: Where’s That? Publishers.


Images reprinted from a website (includes charts, graphs, photographs, drawings or other depictions, NOT tables) 

Zarft, K. (Photographer). (2010). Girl with dog [Online image]. Reprinted from Kathy’s pix. Retrieved from


Images reprinted from a website (no author, title, or date) 

[Humerus fracture]. (n.d.). [Illustration]. Retrieved from

Table reprinted from a website (Publication Manual, p. 128-150)

Springshare LibGuide. (2014). APA 6th edition research guide page hits 2013 [Table]. Reprinted from NorQuest College Library research guides usage statistics. Retrieved from

NorQuest Library has noted that the formal APA style does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers so we have developed this citation style in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation. 

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

For example:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format can be found under the In-Text Citation tab. The 'p' in personal communication is lower-case as the official APA style which does not capitalize it.