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APA 6th edition: Miscellaneous


Do not include personal communications or classical works such as the Bible, Qur’an or ancient Greek and Roman works in the reference list.

*NorQuest Library has noted that an exception to this should be Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

NorQuest Library has noted that the formal APA style does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers so we have developed this citation style in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation. 

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

For example:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format can be found under the In-Text Citation tab. 

*Remember to include the file format in square brackets after the title of the lecture notes or slides.

Lecture Notes

Smith, F. Why do we cite [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:

Presentation Slides

Marsh, A. D. (2015). Caring for the Dementia Patient [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Live Presentation

Lewis, Stephen. (2016, January). The UN's Sustainable Development Goals: Implications for Canada and the World. International Week. Lecture presented at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

*Provide the name of the page or the content or caption of the post (up to the first 40 words) as the title.

Twitter Post

ONTSpecialNeeds. (2017, November 7). It's so important we read to our children everyday! #literacy #read20mins [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Facebook Image Post

Literacy of Love. (2017, September 23). ‘Mom, I love you more than necessary.’ You had me at, ‘I love you.’ $10 mugs capture that feeling. Local artist. 100% donated to support orphans! [Photograph]. Retrieved from

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